Jack Russell - Terrier, History, Appearance, Fur, Temperament, Training, Health, Characteristics, Size, Behavior, Care

Jack russell terrier
The Jack Russell Terrier is a breed of dog originating from the United Kingdom, and whose development was based on the standard of the Work Club in Australia. It is a basically white dog, more compact than tall, agile, and that despite its small size It has a lot of strength and endurance. It is a working terrier, alert, tenacious and independent. An excellent companion dog for active people. There is a variant called Parson Russell terrier that is larger.

The breed was recognized in 2000 by the FCI, in 2009 by the United Kennel Club, and in June 2012 the same breed was recognized by the American Kennel Club under the name "Russell terrier".

History
England, country of origin
This breed of dog owes its name to the Reverend John "Jack" Russell. Born in 1795 in Darmouth, England, he was a pastor for many years in Swymbridge Parish, County Devon. Terrier lover, during his studies at Oxford he bought his first dog of these characteristics, a white female with hard hair with markings on the head called "Trump", which by the description and photo that are preserved of her is quite similar to the current one Jack Russell terrier FCI standard.

Fox hunting was widely practiced in Devon County at the time Reverend Russell lived, and he was passionate about this activity. His hobby led him to breed dogs. Thus, he began to cross hunting dogs, more exactly terriers of different single-colored and multi-colored breeds. What he was looking for ways to improve the aptitude of the specimens, not to homogenize the physical aspect of them and therefore when he died he did not leave a specific standard. The crossbreeds and the non-standardization of the breed have caused divergences about the current appearance of the Jack Russell terrier.

Australia, developing country
It should be noted that Australia was the country that actively contributed to the development, and subsequent recognition, of this breed internationally. There are no specific data on when the first Jack Russell terrier arrived in Australia, but there is information about specimens that came as a gift and contributed significantly to the breed. As for example in 1964, "Hardy" (JRI-5) which was a gift from the Duke of Beaufort - Beaufort Hunt Club in the UK - to the Australian equestrian winner of the Olympic gold medal: Bill Roycroft. So was the "Kiss Me Kate" (JRI-6) of the Duchess of Bedford - Bedford Hunt Club in the UK.

In 1972 the Jack Russell Terrier Club of Australia was officially formed. This specialized club instituted a comprehensive registration system along with a formal breed standard. This club also started discussions with the Australian National Kennel Council about the possibility of recognizing and registering the breed. On October 25, 2000, the International Cynological Federation - Europe Division - finally officially and definitively recognized the Jack Russell terrier breed using the standard from Australia.

Some work clubs refuse to recognize this breed, despite recognition from the FCI, UKC, AKC, ANKC and many other countries. These clubs carry out their own breeding records and competitions, like the Jack Russell Terrier Club of Great Britain (JRTCGB) or the Jack Russell Terrier Club of the United States (JRTCA), these types of clubs describe in their highest terriers standard Parson Russell terrier type, like a Jack Russell.

Appearance
Its basic and predominant color should be white - a minimum of 51% - although it may have brown, tan or black spots on various parts of the body. Dropped ears with good texture and great mobility. Its average height is between 25 and 30 cm in height at the withers. The depth of the body from height to the withers and chest should be equal to the length of the front leg from the elbow to the floor. The dog as a whole is longer than it is tall. Its approximate weight is between 5 and 7 kilos. They usually have around 4 to 6 offspring, and their gestation lasts 2 months.

Fur
Like most terriers, they have water-resistant hair, which protects the dog when it enters burrows or lakes. Its coat or coat can be of three types: smooth, hard and semi-hard. Depending on the type it presents, it will be maintained and cared for. JRTs with hard and semi-hard hair require more intense maintenance than those with straight hair.

Normally a smooth-haired dog only needs a weekly brushing. While hard and semi-hard hair JRTs require the technique known as stripping, which is the extraction by hand and consists of pulling dead old hair by the roots, and it must be done during the spring to remove the winter coat already late summer to allow the winter cloak to grow - keeping the animal warm during the cold months. Extracting the dead hair in this way allows it to grow again maintaining the texture and function of the coat. If the animal participates in dog shows, it will need a specific calendar to attend to its coat and thus allow its coat to present the required standard texture.

Temperament
The standard describes him as: “A lively, alert and active terrier, with a sharp and intelligent expression. Bold and brave, friendly and confident. They are extremely active, inquisitive, lively and hunter dogs, so they require open spaces where they can exercise in order to unleash their inexhaustible energy and endless curiosity. They need constant, consistent and patient training that allows them to stimulate their sharp intelligence. They are not recommended for sedentary people, first-time owners or families with very young children.

They can be trained for a large number of activities, especially if they use their natural tendency to jump, trail, hunt for prey, and deep dig: they are excellent hunters of rodents and vermin such as rabbits, ducks, and other types of small animals. They have also been used successfully as actors; fact that has earned them the popular sympathy because they are dogs with a charisma difficult to match.

training
Being a working and hunting dog, it will present a natural tendency to bark to indicate the location of its prey, it will also dig with tenacity at the same time that it will use its jaws to tear pieces of grass and dirt so that it can open a hole that allows it to Dig underground where their target is, which could range from a bone buried by another dog to directly cornering a fox in its burrow.

Barking and digging are some of the most prized qualities in this terrier, although ironically they can become a serious problem in the hands of inexperienced owners or with little information about their nature. Hence the emphasis on exercising and training it daily, otherwise it will begin to exhibit annoying behaviors such as: excessive barking, trying to escape from the garden, digging deep holes in undesirable places, destroying plants, hyperactivity, aggressiveness, etc. A recommended alternative, which will not only delight this terrier, but also allow him to jump and run, is to enroll him in agility courses.

Health
In general, the JRT is a healthy, happy and exuberant dog, but being a breed that descends from the Fox Terrier, it has a predisposition to suffer Ataxia and Myelopathy terrier (hereditary Ataxia) in the locomotor system. This rare inherited disease develops in the first months of life and is associated with movement disorders and increased deafness. You can also have diseases of the eye such as dislocation of the lens. To reduce these risks to a minimum, responsible breeders should only breed between specimens whose genealogical history is known and rigorously certified. Males and females destined for reproduction should be medically reviewed and declared free of these conditions.

The average life span of the Jack Russell terrier, based on a recent survey, is approximately 13.6 years.

Jack russell
The Jack Russell terrier is one of the best known dog breeds in the world due to its characteristics and personality. Its origin is in the United Kingdom, although its development was based on the standard set by an Australian work club.

The most striking thing about this breed is its compact size, which at the same time has large doses of energy. It is characterized by its usual white fur and its permanent alertness, in addition to a sympathy that has earned it to be one of the favorite pets on the planet.

Although the standard is currently defined, there are many differences of opinion about the physical appearance of Jack Russell. This is precisely because of its origin, riddled with crosses between various types of terriers that were not looking for specific characteristics, but rather to improve the hunting ability of the new specimens.

The mother of the breed as it is known today is believed to be a female named Trump, who belonged to the Reverend John <> Russell, from whom the entire breed takes its name. This man, born in England, was a pastor for a long time in the parish of Swybridge, and he always shared his life with a terrier dog due to his fondness for hunting. His love for terriers and his love of fox hunting led him to breed puppies from Trump, whom he crossed with males of various types and colors. The Jack Russell terrier comes from this breed, as well as another very similar but slightly larger canine variety: the Parson Russell terrier.

Over time, the descendants of that first female arrived in Australia, where they followed a process of breeding and improving the breed until reaching the current standard. It was not, however, until 1972 when the Jack Russell Club of Australia appeared, and it was not until 2000 that the FCI recognized the breed following the Australian standard.

Today, Jack Russell is one of the best known and numerous breeds in the world. However, there are some countries where it is especially popular. Of course, led by the United States and Australia. Furthermore, it is one of the majority breeds in Germany and the Netherlands, where there are breed-specific clubs. It is also in the Scandinavian countries and in South Africa, where more than two thousand copies have been recorded in the genealogical book of origins. Likewise, in other countries it continues to grow in popularity, so it is a breed to keep track of, because it is not known where it can go.

Jack Russell Characteristics
Jack Russell is without a doubt a very active, intelligent, brave, friendly and self-confident dog. It is a dog destined to work, and as such it is always waiting to fulfill some task. It requires a lot of exercise and proper control by its owner, so it is not recommended for people who have little experience caring for a dog.

Among all the characteristics of the Jack Russell Terrier, it is necessary to highlight those that are most striking and representative of the breed. For example, there is no doubt that the Jack Russel Terrier has short legs for which it stands out. So there is no need to think that the Jack Russell has several types, but rather that there is a wide variety of possibilities in the configuration of the breed, although always maintaining some specific characteristics.

It is a small breed animal, short legs and compact, slightly longer than it is tall. However, behind that fragile appearance is a strong and energetic dog, ready for any task involving hunting or chasing prey. Despite being small, he is very muscular and tough, and is always prepared to run towards his prey. Do not think that because Jack Russell has short legs he will not be able to run and jump like anyone else.

The characteristic shape of its body had a very marked purpose in its origin, that of being able to easily enter burrows to hunt rodents and foxes, something that could be done with great ease. It also has droopy and highly mobile ears, in the shape of a V that also in hunting prevents dirt or dirt from entering them. In the same order, its flattened head, long snout, and powerful jaws served its purpose without question.

Jack Russell size
The standard size of the Jack Russell is between 25 and 38 cm at the withers, and it weighs between 5 and 7 kilos approximately. It is a small puppy, however, it is not recommended to live in too small apartments if you do not have the availability to exercise it for a long time, since all its energy would be translated into unwanted behaviors indoors.

Jack Russell fur
The Jack Russell's coat is its most variable physical characteristic, and that there are up to three varieties of hair, which can be smooth, hard and semi-hard. In all cases it is quite resistant, and serves as protection when swimming in water or digging in the ground. Depending on the type of hair, the dog will need more or less care, but generally it is an animal that maintains itself in a good aesthetic state on its own.

Regarding shades, any specimen of the Jack Russell breed must present at least 51% of its body in white, which can also be combined with brown, tan or black spots on various areas of the body. Hence, this breed is known on many occasions as a Jack Russell terrier, although the truth is that it cannot present another majority coloration on its body.

Jack Russell Behavior
Jack Russell is a dog with a very strong personality, which will test the patience and determination of his family. He is tireless, and will always want to run, jump, or do any other physical activity. They are always alert and eager to exercise, and they also need constant education and training to focus all that energy on behaviors that are not disastrous for people.

Its ability to learn new tricks thanks to its intelligence is one of its most outstanding characteristics, which makes it an animal highly valued in cinema and other artistic disciplines that require a high level of concentration by the dog. In addition, they are easy to train in all kinds of activities, especially for those that require physical effort, jumps, chases or digging.

Is it easy to train a dog of the breed Jack Russell?
The Jack Russell terrier has enviable characteristics. Added to his intelligence is his ability and his ability to learn. As well as obedient genetics that make it very easy to train. Hence, it is common to see specimens of this breed in movies and other exhibitions. If you have ever wondered about the Pancho dog and its breed, you should know that it is a smooth-haired Jack Russell terrier. Pancho's breed is also that of many other dogs in the cinema, since they are easy to train and work comfortably with them.

You can know more about the Jack Russell and its personality, and the Jack Russell and its characteristics if you decide to approach this breed beyond the information that you can find on the internet.

Main diseases of Jack Russell
One of the advantages of the Jack Russell is that it is a healthy and happy dog, which rarely gets sick. It has a tendency or genetic predisposition to suffer ataxia and myelopathy of the terrier due to being a descendant of the Fox Terrier, although luckily it is not something excessively habitual, and it decreases with the responsible breeding by the breeders. It can also present some diseases in the eyes, such as dislocation of the lens, although in the same way, the possibilities are reduced by previous studies carried out on the specimens destined for reproduction.

In addition to this, you only have to pay attention to your skin, since you can have it sensitive and present allergies, especially in completely white specimens. In these cases, it is recommended to apply sunscreen on the muzzle and on their ears to prevent them from burning.

Jack Russell basic care
This breed requires minimal care compared to other breeds. They barely shed hair, and they tend to stay in good shape, so brushing once in a while is usually enough to make it look perfect. Remember that you should always follow the vaccination and deworming schedule, this way you will have the guarantees that it will always remain in the best state of health. In addition to that, you should take note of some care of the Jack Russell so that it is always in the best conditions.

Brushed
In general, it is recommended to perform a minimum of one brushing per week on any dog. Depending on the type of hair of the Jack Russell, these brushings could be more spaced in time, and only be done in times of molting or when the coat appears dirty or dirty.

Bathrooms
A bath every six to eight weeks is enough to keep the dog clean. It is possible to increase the frequency in the case of a specimen that spends a lot of time outdoors or tends to get dirty. In any case, it is always convenient to do the bath with a specialized shampoo, because one of humans could cause you to suffer allergic skin reactions.

Feeding
The feeding will depend especially on the amount of exercise that the animal performs. Obviously, the more energy you spend, the more need you will have to recover it, always within limits so that it is not excessive and can present other problems. The most important thing is to always bet on a quality diet that meets all your nutritional needs.

Exercise
Without a doubt, exercise is one of the things that the owner of a Jack Russell should have the most influence on, in addition to her education. Whether living in the country or in the city, this animal needs to give out all its energy through outings, sports, races, chases, and all kinds of activities. These animals are ideal for very sporty people who want a companion for daily adventures.

Education
Education is very important and basic to maintain a good relationship with Jack Russell. Her temperament is quite strong, so it requires a person with determination and firmness in her education. They are friendly and sociable by nature, but it is also convenient to socialize with other dogs as a puppy, because the adult specimen can present some aggressiveness and territoriality.

Their high intelligence allows them to easily learn commands and tricks, so they can be suitable for obedience contests if trained correctly. Work always pays off, and with these smart little animals the reward will be a unique relationship.

The Jack Russell is undoubtedly a very special breed, which needs specific care and prior knowledge from its owner in order to meet all its needs. If you have that predisposition to do it, you can share your life with one of these animals, who will know how to reward you with love for everything you do. The most advisable thing if you want to get a copy of this breed, is that you go to a reputable breeder with enough experience to be able to give you all the information about the breed and the necessary guarantees about the puppy and its good health. Do not forget that his personality is unique, so you will have to be very clear on how to act with your new best friend if you want him to grow up to be a loving, friendly and balanced dog in his way of acting. Never wonder how much a Jack Russell Terrier costs. If you really want to share your life with one, you will have to be in a position to invest as much as necessary.

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